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  • Adding 's' or 'es'

         Add 's' to most nouns and verbs. 

Examples: cat/cats     play/plays

         Add 'es' if words end in 'ch', 'sh', 'x', 's' or 'z'. 

Examples: church/churches     dish/dishes     fox/foxes



  • Words ending in 'y'

          If preceded by a consonant, change the 'y' to 'i' and add 'es'.

Example: candy/candies

          If preceded by a vowel, just add 's'.

Example: toy/toys



  • Words ending in 'o'

          Some words ending in 'o' add 'es'.

          Common words that must have 'es' are: potatoes, tomatoes, echoes, heroes, vetoes, embargoes and torpedoes.

          If preceded by a vowel, just add 's'.

Examples: radio/radios     patio/patios     zoo/zoos     kangaroo/kangaroos



  • Words ending in 'f'

          Change the 'f' to 'v' and add 'es'.

Example: leaf/leaves



  • Exceptions:

          Some nouns have different plurals. Example: tooth/teeth

          Some nouns don't change for plurals. Example deer/deer



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